Projects in RUBION

Adsorption of model surfactants on subsoil samples

Human Environmental Research - Stumpe, Institute of Geographie, Bergische Universität Wuppertal

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are known to have adverse effects on human health and the environment. Thus, an effective risk assessment with concern on POP adsorption potential in the soil compartment is of high interest. The objective of our study was to develop a reliable, rapid and low-cost method which is able to predict the adsorption of two model POPs, 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in soil samples based on spectral information (MIR) and partial least-square analyses (PLSR). For the model development 96 top- as well as subsoils were used. To characterize the composition of the samples, they were analyzed for particle size distribution, manganese and iron oxide concentration, organic carbon content (SOC), pH and the soil surface area. The KD-values for NP and PFOA were calculated in batch experiments.

Auger-Electron Analysis of Oxide Layers on Copper

Nano- and Micromechanics, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, MPG

Aim of this project is to (i) proof and (ii) quantify the thickness of possible oxide layers on Cu and CuAl systems. The experiments are planned within a large scale micromechanical investigation on dislocation nucleation at coherent twin boundaries, performed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung. So far, using nanoindentation, we have shown that grain boundaries might act as frequent sources of dislocations. However, to ultimately proof this we need to proof the absence of surface oxides.

Bacterial iron acquisition

Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

We investigate bacterial iron acquisition, the role of siderophores, and the role of ionophores.

Funded by: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

Burried layers in diamond (Group Lorke, University Duisburg-Essen)

Ion Beam Analysis and Material Modification, RUBION, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

A burried graphite layer to serve as a gate for a FET should be produced by the implantation of carbon in diamond with an energy of 100 keV to open the possibility to stabilize and manipulate single NV centres.

Characterization of funcional coatings

Analytical Chemistry — Biointerfaces, Faculty for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum

The chemistry of organic, functional coatings will quantitatively be analyzed. This concerns coatings prepared by grafting from as well as by grafting to approaches. Also polymer coatings with different crosslinking mechanisms will be investigated by element sensitive chemical analysis. The coatings are at a later stage tested in our research group regarding their low-fouling properties and the results from surface analysis will be correlated to protein attachment and biofouling assays.

Composition and density characterization of transition metal nitride films

MEMS Materials, Institute for Materials, Ruhr University Bochum

The properties of transition metal nitrides (TM-N) strongly depend on their chemical composition (e.g. TM/N ratio) and density. Both, density and composition are affected by synthesis parameters (e.g. temperature, plasma properties). Transition metal nitrides were synthesized by magnetron sputtering using sets of different process parameters. Mechanical properties like Young’s modulus and hardness are determined by nano indentation and residual stress is evaluated by curvature method. The aim of the project is to identify relationships between synthesis parameters, composition and density and mechanical properties. The project is part of the collaborative research center SFB-TR 87.

Development of a Combined Stimulated Emission Depletion and Scanning Ion Conductance Microscope

Nanoscopy, RUBION, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

This project aims a combining a Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) and a Scanning Ion Conductance Microscope (SICM) to allow simultaneous, correlated recording of the cellular topography and a protein distribution in living cells with diffraction-unlimited resolution.

Funded by: DFG

Development of STED and SICM instruments

Nanoscopy, RUBION, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

This long-term project aims at developing and optimizing our STED and SICM instrument.

Differentiation of microbial activity between bulk soil and rhizosphere hot spots.

Marschner, Geographical Institute, RUB

14C-labelled substrates or nutrients and combinations will be added to the moist soil samples after a 10-day pre-incubation period. The incubation will be conducted in a CarbO2Bot® instrument which allows temperature control and records CO2 evolution from the samples through changes in electric conductivity in an alkaline solution. After certain time intervals, the solution is replaced by a fresh one and the evolved 14CO2 is determined in a scintillation counter (Perkin Elmer Tri-Carb 2800 TR). In this way, the substrate-borne CO2 can be differentiated from the SOC-borne CO2 and priming effects are calculated by subtracting the CO2 evolved from an unsupplemented control sample (Hamer and Marschner 2005). Enzyme activities will be determined in soil suspensions to which fluorogenic substrates (MUF, AMC) are added in a 96 well microplate assay as described by Marx et al. (2001).

Diffusion of H bearing species in silicate glasses at low temperatures - development of a new experimental technique

Ion Beam Analysis and Material Modification, RUBION, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

The transport of H in glasses at relatively low temperatures (below 200 °C) is relevant for a number of applications such as obisidian dating of archaeological artefacts, palaeoclimate studies, storage of high level nuclear waste and many more. We have developed several new experimental aspects, and in particular (a) the ability to produce H-bearing amorphous thin films to act as a source of H without the presence of free H2O, and (b) the ability to measure low concentrations of H, independent of the speciation, with a high spatial resolution on the nanometer scale. In this project it is intended to use these developments to explore the diffusion of H-bearing species at conditions that have been inaccessible so far. A specific goal is to characterize the compositional dependence of H-diffusion at these conditions and understand the change of diffusion mechanism that leads to a different behaviour from those observed at higher temperatures.

Funded by: DFG, DFG

Diffusion of Nitrogen in diamond

Nukleare Festkörperphysik, Felix-Boch Institut für Festkörperphysik, Universität Leipzig

The generation of NV centers in diamond is an essential task of quantum technology. NV centers can be used as qubits in quantum computers. For this task it is necessary to address single NVs and to generate them deterministically. The latter is not yet possible and should be the subject of this investigation. It should be clarified whether near-surface nitrogen diffuses. For this purpose, high-purity diamonds are irradiated with 15N, annealed at high temperature and investigated at the University of Munich with ERDA. A complimentary investigation with protons 15N(p,gamma) in Bochum would also be very helpful.

Effects of nutrient inputs on the carbon turnover of urban and remote forest soils

Marschner, Geographical Institute, RUB

14C-labelled substrates or nutrients and combinations will be added to the moist soil samples after a 7-day pre-incubation period. The incubation will be conducted in a CarbO2Bot® instrument which allows temperature control and records CO2 evolution from the samples through changes in electric conductivity in an alkaline solution. After certain time intervals, the solution is replaced by a fresh one and the evolved 14CO2 is determined in a scintillation counter (Perkin Elmer Tri-Carb 2800 TR). In this way, the substrate-borne CO2 can be differentiated from the SOC-borne CO2 and priming effects are calculated by subtracting the CO2 evolved from an unsupplemented control sample (Hamer and Marschner 2005). Enzyme activities will be determined in soil suspensions to which fluorogenic substrates (MUF, AMC) are added in a 96 well microplate assay as described by Marx et al.(2001).

Experimental Simulation of Solar Wind Implantation in Silicate Minerals

Electron Microscopy Unit, Electron Microscopy Unit, Hamburg University of Technology

The surface of asteroids and planets, with no atmosphere and a strong magnetic field, in the Solar System (e.g. Moon, Mercury) is impacted by energetic (~1 keV/nucleon) solar wind ions. The solar wind consists of 95% protons, 2-4% He++, and the rest heavy ions. The interaction of ions with minerals, present on the surface of planets and asteroids, changes the structure and chemical composition of the upper few nanometers of the mineral surface and this leads to changes in the optical properties (UV, VNIR) of the material. Since optical spectroscopy is generally used to characterize the surface composition of solar system bodies, it is important to understand the mechanism and products of interaction between ions and minerals. Here, I propose to experimentally implant 40-60 keV Ar++ ions (Fluence: 1e16-1e18 ions/cm2) into thin slices of minerals (e.g. olivine, pyroxene) crystals and pressed powder pellets. After irradiation the samples will be studied using FIB and TEM.

Functionalized Nanodiamonds for Biomedical Research and Therapy

Radiobiology MHH, Molecular Oncology and Radiobiology, Ruhr-University Bochum

Several groups from various German universities are involved in this project, which is sponsored by a grant of the Volkswagen Foundation. The aim is to modify nanodiamonds in order to use them for diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes. On the one hand, our research group is investigating the biocompatibility of these nanodiamonds as an indispensable prerequisite for their use in humans. On the other hand, we want to clarify whether nanodiamonds doped with the strong beta-emitter 32P can be used for radiotherapy as a kind of intracellular brachytherapy.

Functional metal oxides for sensor applications (FunALD)

Inorganic Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ruhr University Bochum

Fabricating metal oxide based nanostructures for their application in gas phase sensors. The project covers precursor development and its evaluation for thin film deposition via thermal and plasma assisted atomic layer deposition

Funtionalized Nanodiamonds for Biomedical Research and Therapy

Nanoscopy, RUBION, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

Nanodiamonds are biocompatible nanoparticles, which can be functionalized by manifold surface modifications. Therefore, they are an excellent candidate for biomedical and even therapeutic applications. Here we aim at developing nanodiamonds labeled by different lattice modifications, such that they are detectable by various techniques, from microscopy and radiography to magnet resonance imaging. Modifying the nanodiamond lattice instead of its surface ensures that the nanoparticle and its label do not dissolve in physiologic environment. Additionally, it does not alter its interactions with the environment and hence the biocompatibility of the nanoparticle is preserved. A nanoparticle that is not detectable due to surface but to lattice modifications for the first time allows comparable investigations from the subcellular to organism level, eventually leading to the development of nanodiamond based tools for biomedical and therapeutic applications.

Funded by: VolkswagenStiftung

He4 implantation ino thin aluminum foils

Ion Beam Analysis and Material Modification, RUBION, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

For experiments at the superconducting cyclotron at the Laboratory Nazionali del Sud of the INFN in Catania He4 targets are prepared by He implantation into thin aluminum foils. The goal is to have a high He concentration in foils as thin as possible. The foils will be characterized by RBS with protons.

High-energy-ion-implantation

ionimplantation for research and industry, RUBION / rubitec GmbH, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

In the department RUBION ion-beams, in the area of the industrial implantation, ion irradiations in the MeV range are carried out on behalf of customers in cooperation with our partner, the rubitec GmbH. There is a wide range of different ions available. The available energy and dose range depends on the respective species and the wafer size of our customers. The possibilities are determined by us depending on the application for each customer on request. In this field we are certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001: 2015 !

Hydrogen Dynamics in Elementary Reactions on Molybdenum sulfide and carbide

Physical Chemistry, FB 8, Westphalian University of Applied Sciences

Molybdenum Compunds, MoS2 and Mo(2)C are promising new catalysts for electrochemical applications, e.g. water electrolysers. It is planned to study several aspects of hydrogen dynamics in these materials using neutron scattering (ILL Grenoble), electrochemical spectroscopy (WH Recklinghausen) and nuclear reaction analysis (present proposal): hydrogen sorption, fast hydrogen diffusion under reaction conditions, hydrogen modes and substrate phonons as well as ortho-para-conversion of hydrogen on cold catalyst surfaces. Model systems of bulk materials, pure powder samples and electrochemical electrodes will be used. The expected results of these studies are diffusion parameters (binding sites, pathways, activation energies), and key parameters of structure and dynamics of the active surface. Since hydrogen sorption and the motion of several hydrogen species are involved, hydrogen concentrations profiles are required for the full interpretation of the neutron scattering results.

Implantation of Ni ions in diamond to create novel defect centers

Ultrafast Quantum Optics and Optical Metrology, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford

In this project we would like to implant Ni into ultrapure as well as p-doped synthetic diamonds to create a class of inversion-symmetric Ni defects, the nickel vacancy center (NiV), which so far hasn't been studied in great detail. Theoretical investigations and preliminary experiments suggest that the NiV could offer electronic properties excelling those of the known color centers such as NV and SiV and the defects might therefore be of great interest for quantum technologies. We will use the samples fabricated at RUBION to perform optical spectrocopy experiments at high-resolution to validate the theoretically predicted electronic structure of the defect on an ensemble and single-defect level.

Investigating the composition of perovskite layers applied into electroluminescent devices such as lasers, and LEDs

Riedl Group, Chair of Electronic Devices, University of Wuppertal

The work includes material development and structural Layering of perovskite for electroluminescence and laser applications. Different layer formation procedures such as pure liquid phase processes, pure vacuum deposition, as well as hybrid deposition processes are demonstrated. The work aims to study and optimize luminescence quantum efficiency and optical amplification and to understand the relationship between composition / structure and optical amplification. And then, selected materials are integrated into electroluminescent devices.

Measurement of alpha-induced reaction cross section on Ru-isotopes

Zilges, Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne

One major nuclear-physics uncertainty for the prediction of branching points in the γ-process reaction network is the α+nucleus optical model potential at sub-Coulomb energies. To improve the scarce experimental database of α-induced reaction cross sections, our group is interested in measuring the (α,γ) cross sections on ruthenium isotopes via the 4π-summing method at RUBION. We plan to measure the cross section at alpha energies from 12 MeV down to ca. 7 MeV.

MnSb Nano clusters on GaAs

Surface Science, Experimental Physics IV, Ruhr-University Bochum

MnSb is a promising candidate for efficient spin injection into GaAs structures, which has a high Curie temperature and is compatible with the III-V lattice structure. The influence of different growth parameters on the formation of nanoclusters and their properties such as size, shape, density and magnetic behavior will be investigated. The aim of the project is to use RBS to investigate the influence of growth parameters on the chemical composition of nanostructures.

Modular advanced practical: 3[H]-ouabain binding to thyroid hormone stimulated neural cultures (WS1819)

Electrobiochemistry of Neural Cells, Department of Biochemistry II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

This practical lab course is part of the Master studies of Biochemistry and iSTEM.

One week lab course ion beam analysis

Advance Exercise Course Physics, Experimental Physics, Ruhr-University Bochum

Advanced practical experiments at the accelerators for students from the Ruhr University Bochum and Paderborn University.

Ouabain binding study on cell cultures from the central nervous system

Electrobiochemistry of Neural Cells, Department of Biochemistry II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

In the course of this project cell cultures will be obtained from postnatal rats. These cultures primarily composed of neurons and astrocytes will be treated with growth factors or other proteins and factors that are capable of modulating neuronal excitability. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that an increased excitability in neurons also leads to an upregulated expression of Na+/K+-ATPase. We use Tritium-labeled ouabain which selectively binds to the Na+/K+-ATPase to determine the density of this enzyme in the cell membrane.

Practical Course Molecular Biology

Dept. Biochemistry 1 - Receptor Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ruhr University Bochum

In vitro transcription with radioactive labeling

Practical course on radioligand binding assay

Radioligand-Assay, Deptartment of Animal Physiology, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

As a part of the advanced module "Gene, Cell, Organism" students practice the characterization of intracellular steroid hormone receptors in tissue samples of vertebrates.

Practical course on radioligand binding assay

Department of Animal Physiology, Department of Animal Physiology, Ruhr-University Bochum

As a part of the advanced module "Gen, Cell, Organism" students practise the characterization of intracellular steroid hormone receptors in tissue samples of vertebrates.

Prekursor incorporation experiments

Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

Using radiolabeled precursors in incorporation experiments, we analyze the antibacterial mechanism of action.

Producing Ti-bearing quartz by ion-implantation for use as secondary standard in electron microprobe analysis

Diffusion in Minerals and Melts, Institut fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik, Ruhr Universitaet Bochum

The amount of Ti incorporated in quartz (SiO2) is dependent on the temperature of formation. Therefore, Ti in quartz from natural rocks can be used as a geothermometer. Electron microprobe analysis can be used to quantify the amount of Ti in quartz, but as a low accuracy of such measurements would result in erroneous temperature estimates, secondary quartz standards with known Ti contents are needed. Such standards do not yet exist. This project is aimed at producing six standards with defined Ti content (10 μg g-1, 50 μg g-1, 100 μg g-1, 250 μg g-1, 500 μg g-1, and 1000 μg g-1) by means of ion implantation. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry should be used for chemical depth profiling before homogenizing the newly produced materials by heating. Finally, these secondary standard materials will be used for data verification during microprobe measurements of high-temperature metamorphic rocks.

Proteomic response of bacteria

Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

We use pulse-labeling to investigate the proteins newly synthesized in response to stress, e.g. antibiotic treatment.

Funded by: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, National Institutes of Health

Rare-earth-based single photon sources for quantum telecommunication

Rare Earths, 3rd Institute of Physics, University of Stuttgart

The project aims at the realization of single photon sources in the telecom wavelength regime, based on single rare-earth ions (like erbium or ytterbium) precisely doped into optical crystals by means of ion implantation (up to 200nm below the surface). The main advantage of the proposed single photon sources are their true single photon emission, their fourier-limited linewidth and the ability to store emitted photons directly in a medium based on rare-earth ions (straight forward interfacing). The typically low fluorescent signal of single erbium/ytterbium ions can be boosted by orders of magnitude through coupling them to optical resonators (fabricated from thin film lithium niobate) with high Q factors. The single photon source behaviour will be assessed by the indistinguishability of the emitted photons in a Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment.

RBS measurements to identify the composition and thickness of targets for accelerator experiments

Zilges, Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne

At the Tandem Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Cologne experiments ar performed in the fields of Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. For the data analysis it is mandatory to know the exact composition and thickness of the targets. In the present beam time we would like to study six targets with the approximate thicknesses: 0.5 mg/cm² 130Te on 1 mg/cm² 181Ta 0.4 mg/cm² 128Te on 1 mg/cm² 181Ta 1 mg/cm² 164Dy on 1.6 mg/cm² 197Au 0.5 mg/cm² 102Ru on 1.3 mg/cm² 197Au 0.4-0.5 mg/cm² 104Ru on 1.3 mg/cm² 197Au 0.2 mg/cm² 104Ru on 1.3 mg/cm² 197Au From previous measurements we know that the TBS setup ab RUBION is ideally suited for such studies.

Thermography for the detection of soil properties

Human Environmental Research - Stumpe, Institute of Geographie, Bergische Universität Wuppertal

Spatio-temporal analyses of soil properties are important for more profound insights into soil processes. Up to now, non-invasive approaches analyzing physical and biological soil properties and dynamics at the microscale are not available due to methodological, instrumental, and analytical challenges. In this study, we evaluate the use of active and passive infrared thermography (IRT), a non-invasive and non-contact technique, for the detection of surface temperature-based parameters on soil surfaces. The potential and possibilities of IRT were analyzed with a focus on the detection and calibration of soil moisture using active IRT and the determination of microbial activity using passive IRT. A pool of 51 soil samples was used to cover a wide range of chemical, physical, and biological soil properties. The samples were rewetted to 16 different moisture contents, filled into vessels, and placed in an air-proof glove box with an adjusted relative humidity of about 92% to reduce soil drying. Immediately after

Thin-film refractory metamaterials for Thermophotovoltaik

Thin-film technology, Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht

Thin film refractory metamaterials for high-temperature application are prepared by magnetron sputtering and characterized by non-ambient x-ray diffraction. An interesting candidate is a multilayered structure of metallic tungsten and dielectric hafnia. During annealing we observed structural changes of the obtained phases which require a confirmation with further methods. It is planned to carry out RBS and XPS measurements of three different sub-units (3-layer-stacks: as prepared and after two different annealing temperatures).

Transport and insertion mechanisms of plastid-encoded thylakoid membrane proteins

Molecular biology of plant organelles, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Ruhr-University Bochum

The biogenesis of photosynthetic protein complexes of the chloroplast thylakoid membrane requires highly specific protein sorting, integration and assembly mechanisms of nucleus as well as plastid encoded subunits. Central steps in the biogenesis of photosystem II (PS II) are the cotranslational insertion of the plastid encoded D1 protein into the thylakoid membrane and its subsequent assembly into functional PS II. We recently established a technique to partially reconstitute the cotranslational insertion of [35S]-D1 using a homologous in vitro translation system derived from pea chloroplasts. The aims of this proposal are (I) to identify novel components involved in cotranslational protein insertion in thylakoid membranes, (II) to dissect the protein contacts of the nascent D1 chain during translation and insertion and (III) to get insight into the mechanisms underlying targeting and attachment of ribosome-nascent chain complexes to the thylakoid membrane.

Uptake, efflux and conversion of radiolabelled substrates by cells and plant organs

Molecular Genetics and Physiology of Plants, Molecular Genetics and Physiology of Plants, Ruhr University Bochum

We will quantify uptake rates of radioisotopes of various mineral nutrients and/or their toxic analogues into roots of Arabidopsis or into plant gene-expressing cells. We will measure the incorporation of radiolabelled organic and inorganic substrates into endogenous metabolites and/or macromolecules of plant cells, organs and/or cells of heterologous expression systems. We will localize various elements of interest in sections of plant tissues by imaging using Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) combined with Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) comparatively between wild type and mutant/transgenic plants. We will conduct live cell imaging of plant cells expressing suitably marker proteins using the Olympus IX 81 live cell imaging microscope with the goal of determining protein localization and its dynamics. It is possible that it might be necessary to apply STED super-resolution fluorescence imaging to answer our research questions.

Using infrastructure of the Bandow lab

Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

This "project" covers a conglomerate of activities that entail the use of infrastructure of the Bandow lab that is located at RUBION, but does not entail work with unstable isotopes.