Hydrogen quantification in ALD-ZnO grown by deuterated precursors

ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are intrinsically highly conductive although no intentional dopants are added. ALD-ZnO is an In-free transparent conductive oxides (TCO) and can be used in optoelectronic devices. It was also recently proposed as carrier-selective passivating contact for silicon solar cells. For bulk ZnO crystals both intrinsic point defects and hydrogen were proposed to explain the conductivity. However, ALD-ZnO is orders of magnitude more conductive and the reason for which is not yet fully understood. Previously, we quantified the total amount of hydrogen in the highly conductive ALD-ZnO thin films via nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) at RUBION to be ~1 at% [J. Appl. Phys. 122, 025306 (2017)]. Since both of the ALD-precursors that are used to deposit ZnO (diethylzinc and water) contain hydrogen, it is unknown which of them provides the majority of the incorporated hydrogen that is likely to cause the high conductivity. Therefore, we use light water (H2O) and heavy water

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